8.1 ASPIRATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-LED DEVELOPMENT
Malawians aspire to have a science and technology-driven economy. This will be characterized by improved science and technology education, training and culture; increased commercialization of research and development (R&D); adaptation and promotion of new and emerging technologies; promotion of environmentally-sound technologies; existence of effective science and technology (S&T); and increased implementation and use of information technology (UT).
8.2 STRATEGIC CHALLENGES AND OPTIONS
8.2.1 Improving Science and Technology Education, Training and Culture
220.127.116.11 Strategic Challenge
The capacity of education and training institutions to meet the requirements of the country's technological development is currently low.
The challenges to be addressed in improving science and technology education, training and culture include: reviewing school curricula; promoting and encouraging skills training and development; and developing science and technology culture.
18.104.22.168 Strategic Options
In order to meet the above challenges, the strategic options include:
22.214.171.124 Strategic Challenge
The current number of R&D personnel is unacceptably low. In addition, investment in R&D is also low.
The challenge is to promote R&D both by the publoic and the private sectors.
In order to promote the transfer of new and emerging technologies, the strategic challenges to be addressed include: attracting foreign direct investment and promoting technology transfer; establishing monitoring mechanisms for technology transfer; building capacity to assimilate technology; and protecting intellectual property-rights.
126.96.36.199 Strategic Options
The strategic options to deal with the above challenges include:
188.8.131.52 Strategic Challenge
The technologies developed outside the country are mostly not suited to the country's circumstances. In addition, the country has little capacity to choose and adapt foreign technologies
184.108.40.206 Strategic Options
To meet the above strategic challenges, the options include:
220.127.116.11 Strategic Challenge
Most technologies have not been designed to take into account environmental concerns, and their indiscriminate use in Malawi could have disastrous environmental consequences.
The strategic challenges to be met include the following: making information available; reviewing available regulation and enforcement; developing monitoring systems and programmes; introducing training programmes; and enhancing selection of environmentally-sound technologies.
18.104.22.168 Strategic Options
The strategic options available for meeting the above challenges include:
22.214.171.124 Strategic Challenge
To be effective, science and technology need to be assimilated, diffused and used efficiently. Malawi lacks the necessary conditions for S&T assimilation and diffusion which include: well functioning information networks; availability of workers with the skills to assimilate technologies; adequate resources for the introduction of new products and services; conducive cultural practices; and existence of a comprehensive national S&T policy.
The strategic challenges to achieving effective S&T includes increasing the number of scientists and technologists; promoting effective transfer of technology; periodically evaluating the performance of S&T institutions; addressing gender issues in S&T; and developing a comprehensive national S&T Policy.
126.96.36.199 Strategic Options
To meet the above challenges, the strategic options include:
188.8.131.52 Strategic Challenge
A developing country such as Malawi needs information technology to achieve development in all spheres of human endeavour. However, Malawi's use of information technology is too low to meet this objective. The strategic challenge is to promote the use of IT.
184.108.40.206 Strategic Options
In order to address the strategic challenges facing Malawi in the area of IT, the options include: